RAS is the narrowing (stenosis) of renal artery. This reduces blood supply to the kidney, resulting into renovascular hypertension (increase in blood pressure), kidney become small in size, renal failure, coronary artery disease, pulmonary edema.

Symptoms– Most patients are asymptomatic, and the main problem is high blood pressure that cannot be controlled with medication. Decreasing kidney function, flash pulmonary edema.

Cause– RAS is most often caused by atherosclerosis (90%)(similar to peripheral arterial disease) and fibromuscular dysplasia.

Diagnosis–  Clinical examination of patient, imaging of blood vessels using color Doppler, CT angiogram, DSA, Captopril challenge test, MAG3 scan.

Treatment– RAS is initially treated with medication, if blood pressure cannot be controlled with medication and high grade RAS is documented, then most commonly used treatment procedure is a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with or without stenting.