Obstruction of central/major veins like brachiocephlic, SVC, IVC (short wide vessel carrying circulating blod into the heart) cause group of symptoms due to back pressure changes from that obstructed vein.
Symptoms- will depend upto the level of obstruction, severity of obstruction. Most common symptoms are swelling, venous distention under the skin, edema, difficulty in breathing.
Causes/risk factors– previous central venous catheter placement like dialysis catheter placement, cancer, clots in veins, infection like TB, etc.
Diagnosis– Clinical examination of patient, imaging of blood vessels using color Doppler, CT venography, DS venogram.
Treatment– depends on the cause of obstruction, However In an acute setting of obstruction, endovascular stenting by an interventional radiologist provide relief of symptoms in as little as 12–24 hours with minimal risks.